Scoring & Reporting

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Scoring & Reporting

PTC provides comprehensive scoring and reporting services to clients and candidates. All phases of examination processing are designed to ensure accuracy and examination security. We offer statistical analyses of the examination items and forms to validate that your examinations are meeting their objectives.
Post-examination reports are tailored to your specific requirements. Client reports generally include candidate rosters with scoring information, summary statistics, and demographic analyses. Candidate reports generally include total scores and area scores, and indicate areas of weakness. Both types of reports are fully customizable.

How is an examination scored?

In scoring an examination, the number of questions answered correctly on the total examination and in selected areas is determined for each candidate. Those numbers (the candidates’ raw scores) are compared to the passing standard set by the client to determine whether candidates passed or failed the examination.

What is included in the statistical analysis?

Before producing the examination reports, PTC performs a statistical analysis of all items used in the examination form. The item analysis provides data showing the difficulty of each item in the examination and the effectiveness with which each item differentiated between candidates who scored high and those who scored low on the examination. Information on the examination’s score reliability and other descriptive statistics are also produced. The item analysis is reviewed by PTC to assure that all items have been scored correctly and are performing properly in the examination. Any problem identified in any item is brought to the attention of the client organization and reconciled before the examination reports are processed.

What candidate information is included in the standard client report?

Information for each candidate generally includes:

  • Name
  • Repeat status
  • Total raw score, with failing score identified
  • Total percentile
  • Area raw scores, with scores below minimally acceptable identified for failing candidates
  • Association membership status (if appropriate)

What information is included in the statistical analysis?

Summary statistics include:

  • Total score frequency distributions, including the number of candidates who achieved each possible score, cumulative frequency, and percentile rank
  • Mean raw scores and standard deviations
  • Average percent of correctly answered items by candidates for each content area and the whole examination
  • Average percent of questions answered correctly organized by demographic variables such as first-time vs. repeat status, education, experience, and membership status
  • Maximum possible scores
  • Passing score
  • Minimally acceptable score in each content area

What is included in the item analysis?

In addition to the difficulty and discrimination indices, the item analysis provides the following:

  • Mean score (average)
  • Standard deviation (index of spread of scores)
  • Standard error (index of accuracy of scores)
  • Reliability coefficients (Kuder-Richardson formulas 20 and 21; indices of score precision)
  • Frequency distribution (percentage of first-time candidates who earned each score and all lower scores)
  • Distribution of item difficulty levels
  • Individual item statistics (point biserial correlations for items and the test) and percentage of high, middle, low, and total answering each correct and incorrect answer

Can the post-examination report be customized?

Yes, any of our standard client or candidate reports can be fully customized to meet your needs.